This chapter presents the development of
intellectual capital, the knowledge networks for technology utilization
and the desired effects of technology to the intended beneficiaries. It
is supportive to productivity improvement and poverty alleviation and is
consistent with the National Science and Technology Plan (NSTP).
The accomplishments in science and technology from 2004 to 2006 fell short of the plan targets. On internet connectivity, 49.12 percent of the municipalities in the region have internet access in May 2007. The target of 100 percent internet access of all municipalities in the region by 2010 is challenging. All the six provincial governments however have internet connections. In May 2007, about 13.33 percent of the LGUs adopted the government electronic procurement system (G-EPS). The realization of this target is affected by the lack of telecommunication facilities in the rural areas due to lack of protection of the facilities from insurgents. It is also affected by the unreliability of electricity in the far flung municipalities. The major constraint in the attainment of this target is the lack of financial capability of lower class municipalities to acquire, operate and maintain computers for internet purposes.
Web presence in national government agencies (NGAs), state universities and colleges (SUCs), and local government units (LGUs) targeted for year 2006 was barely attained. The NGAs, SUCs and the provincial LGUs generally have established their websites. However, for the municipal LGUs as of May 2007, only 7.89 percent were able to establish and maintain their websites. The Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) established a Regional Local Governance Resource Center (RLGRC), an e-library and Knowledge Center, where LGUs and other stakeholders can directly access updated information through the use of ICT facilities. In 2005, the DOST has installed the VoiceOverInternet Protocol (VOIP) to facilitate coordination of the Philippine Research, Education and Government Information Network (PREGINET) for research and education purposes. The DOST facility was destroyed by typhoon Reming in 2006. NEDA has established and maintained websites, the Knowledge Emporium and Dunong Bikol containing productivity enhancing technologies and best practices.
The availability of information on technologies, success stories and financing options in all barangays targeted for 2005 was not achieved. The availability of information materials is limited to the centers and selected barangays of cities, upper class municipalities and municipalities that have Farmer Information Technology Service (FITS) Centers and Farmers Scientist Bureau (FSB). An extensive information education campaign (IEC) on all the available information on pioneering technologies and best practices has to be pursued to increase public awareness and encourage replication.
The transformation of the Gabay sa Mamamayan Action Center (GMAC) into community e-centers in all barangays of the tertiary growth areas is targeted in 2010. The e-centers are mainly located in the town proper of the tertiary growth areas, hence the accomplishments are far below the target. The DILG distributed various information materials of different agencies to all the barangays in the region in year 2005. As of May 2007, the region has 2,534 functional GMACs representing 73 percent of the 3,471 barangays in the region. The issues and the problems encountered by the LGUs are: a) no funds allocated for GMACs; b) lack of support from barangay officials; c) lack of support from stakeholders; d) inadequate copies of information materials from government agencies; and e) lack of capability of information action teams.
From 2004 to 2006, technologies were developed on different agricultural crops and significant accomplishments in research and development (R&D) were achieved. On pili, methods on asexual propagation was developed, species were characterized for different purposes, and micro-biological analysis of pili pulp as food product was conducted. For coconut, accomplishments include macapuno embryo culture, coco tissue culture for clonal propagation, botanical biocides and cadang-cadang disease containment, and development of coconut by-products, e.g., geotextiles, coco coir, cocopeat, cocodrifts, coco dust as soil conditioner. These coconut by-products gained acceptance in the international market. Abaca varieties resistant to bunchy top and mosaic diseases were screened and model farms were established. Direct seedbed production in saline prone areas was tested. Pineapple production with different methods of fertilization and fruit inducement were conducted. Zero waste for ginger processing was developed.
Technologies were transferred and commercialized through consultancy services, technical assistance, innovative support system assistance and trainings on technologies for small and medium enterprises. Science and technology services, e.g., laboratory and calibration services, and science and technology scholarships for secondary and tertiary education were conducted by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Labeling and packaging assistance were provided in the Albay packaging center.
The regions contribution to the national economy is a measly 2.8 percent in terms of Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP). Labor productivity of the region, valued at P17,366 in 2005, is the fourth lowest in the country compared to other regions. The region should increase its GRDP and should also increase its labor productivity. The region should embark on the development of intellectual capital and conversion into social capital through the utilization of technologies to increase agriculture productivity and value adding of indigenous resources and export materials. The entrepreneurs, farmers, workers and other intended beneficiaries should derive significant share in the gains from science and technology.
Science and technology aims to contribute to productivity improvement and poverty reduction in the region. The specific objectives are:
Develop R&D capability in the region;
Develop and disseminate productivity enhancing technologies and best practices;
Enhance the conversion of intellectual capital into social capital; and
Provide science and technology services, i.e., laboratory and calibration services and science and technology scholarships and trainings.
The annual targets from 2008 to 2010 are envisioned to attain the
Development of 111 technologies and best practices.
Technology transfer and commercialization of 30 tested, mature and robust technologies and best practices.
Establishment of 15 digital information systems for the dissemination of productivity enhancing technologies and best practices; promotion of the application of 99 new technologies; 50 capability enhancements and 40 extension services; and establishment/operation of a system for widespread electronic access to market information system.
Provision of science and technology services - 140 laboratory services, 100 calibration services and science and technology scholarships for secondary and tertiary levels.
Intellectual Capital will be developed and will be promoted for utilization and adoption through the knowledge networks to improve the social capital.
Science and technology development will focus on: a) agriculture, forestry and natural resources; b) biotechnology; c) information and communications technology; d) fishery and aquaculture; e) manufacturing; f) agri-based processing; g) mining; and h) energy. Agriculture and fishery technologies will focus on pili, coconut, abaca, rice, pineapple and aquaculture. Industry technologies will include food processing, furniture, metal crafts, processing of primary agriculture products and export commodities. Energy technologies will attend to the development of small-scale energy sources using alternative fuels, e.g., bio-fuel, biogas, wind and solar power among others for areas that will not be potentially served by electric cooperatives.
The productivity enhancing technologies and best practices will be generated from among the technologies developed through researches, technology verification activities, record of experiences in the application of technologies, conduct of inventions and implementation of projects. Science and technology services will facilitate research activities, provide support to increase productivity and improve the human capital.
Knowledge networks will be enhanced for the dissemination, promotion and utilization of the intellectual capital. Training programs include seminars, seminar workshops, and consultancy services for the application of technologies for the intended beneficiaries. Extension services are on-the-job coaching and firm/farm-level direct assistance. Extension services will be expanded through the utilization of paratechnicians composed of volunteer farmers, farmer leaders, demo farm operators, practicum students, teachers and S&T experts. Demo farms are experimental farms and model farms established within the beneficiary area to encourage the intended beneficiaries to adopt and replicate technologies.
Technical assistance will be in the form of system improvement, production and processing improvement, equipment upgrading and on the job coaching. Science and technology services include: a) laboratory and calibration services related to science and technology and supportive to the operations of SMEs and researchers; and b) science and technology scholarships for secondary and tertiary levels. Print information materials refer to the publication materials of concerned entities featuring, reporting and disseminating technologies and best practices. Digital information systems are the websites established and maintained by the participating entities in providing information about technologies and best practices.
The electronic access to market information is a telecommunication system that will be operated and maintained for the farmers at the farm level to have electronic access to market information, e.g., prices of farm products and inputs. This system facilitates the farmers access to accurate and updated information. It will contribute to higher income and productivity of the farmers. The digital and print information systems and the electronic access to market information systems will be linked to the Farmers Information Technology Service (FITS) centers, Farmers Scientist Bureau (FSB) and the Regional One-Stop Information Shop (OSIS) established by the Bicol Consortium for Agriculture and Resources Research and Development (BCARRD).
Research Consortia. Research consortia will be actively involved in generation of technology through R&D, diffusion of knowledge and technologies and development of human resources. Annual research and development plans of the research consortiums (BCARRD and BCIERD) will be prepared consistent with the Bicol Regional Development Plan. R&D activities will focus on agriculture, energy, housing, mining, processing and other micro, small, medium enterprise activities. Participating agencies will specialize in research areas to achieve complementation of research efforts. Research fora will be regularly conducted to select and give recognition to the best research papers and studies. R&D outputs and mature technologies will be disseminated through different modes in the knowledge networks. Development of human resources will include scholarships and curriculum development. Technological inventions will be encouraged and will be recognized by giving intellectual property rights. Invention of machineries for processing of agriculture products, e.g., coco fiber twining machine will be encouraged.
LGU Participation. The DILG will coordinate LGUs participation in the development and application of intellectual capital. It will give recognition to the exemplary accomplishments of LGUs on science and technology.
S&T services will include calibration, laboratory, scholarships, technical assistance, extension, service centers among others. Extension and technical assistance will include industry, environment, agriculture, disaster management and bio-technology. The services of the packaging center in Albay will be continued and other LGUs will be encouraged to establish services supportive to S&T. The Business Incubation Center in Bicol University will be maintained and other entities will be encouraged to establish and operate a similar facility. E-governance for management information system and procurement system and e-centers for advocacy will be expanded and improved by the LGUs in cooperation with DILG.
Private Sector Participation The private sector, e.g., non-government organizations, cooperatives, enterprises, private research institutions will be encouraged to participate in technology development and utilization. Incentives will be given to the private sector in their participation on science and technology.
Collaboration. Co-financing for technology development and utilization will be encouraged. LGU- SUC-NGA counterpart funding, partnerships and joint activities will be promoted. Research agencies and LGUs will collaborate in the dissemination, promotion and utilization of technologies.
Development of Human Resources. Science and technology scholarships will be provided to secondary and tertiary levels. S&T scholarships will promote excellence in science and mathematics and will pave the way for developing S&T expertise. Curriculum development will be attuned to the need for S&T. Training programs will be provided to technology adaptors. IEC on disaster risk management will be provided.
Foreign Technologies Technologies developed in other countries will be used in the region but should be adopted to the physical condition and local environment, culture and traditions.
Niching and Clustering. Technical assistance and incentives will be provided to priority industries to establish industry niches and agriculture will focus on priority commodities, e.g., coconut, abaca, pili, pineapple, and other high value commercial crops and commodity cluster areas like rice and corn. Technology transfer and commercialization will be provided to priority SMEs.
Innovations in technologies and processes in pursuit of global competitiveness will be pursued. It shall be comprised of four categories, namely: a) strengthening human capital; b) supporting business incubation and acceleration efforts; c) regenerating the innovation environment; and d) upgrading the Filipino mindset.
Programs and Projects