The Macapagal-Arroyo Administration regards education and training as investments for human development that are indispensable in breaking the vicious cycle of poverty. One means to alleviate workers from the claws of poverty is through job generation through skills training.
A growing number of people do not have the capacity to acquire formal education that will empower them to get decent jobs and lead a better quality of life. The role therefore of technical vocational education and training is important in addressing the priority agenda of creating jobs. Department of Education Secretary Jesli A. Lapus claimed that tech-voc is the best career option for many graduating high school students. The results of the National Career Achievement Examination (NCAE) revealed a high aptitude of high school students for technical-vocational programs.
Reports show that Technical Vocational Education Training (TVET) suffers from a low status and image, since society perceives it as a dead-end and the last option among many parents and students. Students in the region prefer to take bachelors degrees than take TVET courses. There is a perception that technical courses are only for the less academically talented and low salary-blue collar workers. Overcoming the societal bias against TVET requires a proactive approach that will redound to immediate benefits to TVET graduates, like immediate employment in jobs where they are trained.
Technical Vocational Education Training (TVET) has proven to be a viable but cost effective alternative to higher education as shown by the increasing number of graduates in the various middle level skills development programs. Total TVET graduates are 98,244 representing a seven percent increase from 91,627 graduates in 2005. Majority of the graduates came from community based training programs (78 percent) while school-based TVET programs accounted for only five percent. Enterprise-based training programs and center-based training programs accounted for only thirteen percent and four percent, respectively. Compared to the MTRDP plan targets, both enrollment and graduates from TVET far exceeded these targets. The increasing number of graduates suggests an emerging social demand for TVET courses.
The assessment and certification of TVET graduates’ performance likewise showed an improvement in the acquired competencies of workers according to quality standards defined by industry but this only constitutes thirty-nine percent of the total TVET graduates and workers assessed in 2006.
In terms of student assistance, there is a relatively small percentage of the students receiving financial assistance. Although TVET students who benefited from the scholarship and financial assistance programs through PESFA (1,517) and TESDP (498) increased, this constituted only a small fraction (4 percent) of the plan target.
Institutional reforms are being implemented to improve the quality of its outputs to match industry needs. Still TVET should strengthen its social marketing program to promote TVET as a viable occupational option and ensure the sustained engagement of the private sector, particularly in the priority industries in providing TVET services - validation of competency and training standards, curricula assessment and certification and enterprise-based trainings.
There has been an increase in the participation of the private and industry sectors in the Technical Vocational Education Training. High out-migration decreased the pool of skilled manpower in the region thus creating the opportunity for TVET to train more.
There is still the need to strengthen ladderized interface between TVET and higher education as an education system which will entail lesser cost for TVET graduates and rationalize response of local government units.
The following are the objectives for skills development:
Promote and enhance capability across sectors for gainful income and productive employment;
Increase access to and improve quality of technical vocational education and training; and
Create employment opportunities by providing the necessary skills and competencies to adapt to and match the needs of industry and society.
The interface between TVET and higher education shall be ladderized to provide the avenue for continued improvement without hampering the growth of students. The ladderized tertiary education system will allow certification or recognition of units gained in TESDA-registered technical-vocational programs for equivalent credits under programs recognized by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). It will entail lesser cost for graduates who want to continue their training in higher education institutions.
The participation of industries in training shall be strengthened. This will be through the dual system mode of training and education for workers in all areas while exploring other enterprise-based training systems. Enterprise-based trainings are essentially hands-on trainings that are done inside participating firms and companies to provide skills specific to a particular occupation that may not be fully provided in the classroom setting.
The TVET system shall be improved. This will include standards and quality of programs to produce workers who are endowed not only with requisite skills and knowledge to match industry needs, the right attitude and work values but are likewise equipped with the appropriate talents and skills to address the demands for innovations that respond to the growing and ever changing needs of society. This would refer to the whole quality-assured TVET system within which quality systems, procedures and processes are worked out for the adoption of institutions and partners to ensure quality products and service delivery. The system involves the continuous development and review of training, assessment and certification processes to ensure adherence to industry-accepted norms and standards.
Technical vocational education training institutions shall continuously be improved with better facilities, training materials and faculty.
Job-skills matching shall be pursued with the assistance of the private sector. The Seek-Find-Train Framework shall be enhanced for the effective matching of skills provided by the labor market.
Scholarship and other financial assistance programs shall be expanded to provide access to training opportunities for more TVET beneficiaries. The implementation of the Private Education Student Fund Assistance (PESFA) with other TVET incentive packages will be put in place to broaden access and equity to opportunities. These scholarship programs are not only for deserving students but also for faculty/trainer development and other deserving partner institutions.
The implementation of technical-vocational education in public high schools shall be strengthened to ensure that the students develop the aptitude and skills needed to make them more employable.
Social marketing of middle-level skills shall be aggressively promoted through regular career guidance in high school and clientele-specific information education and communication programs that would strengthen labor market information.
One hundred percent of local governments units will have at least one Community Based Training for Enterprise Development by 2010.
Ten percent of the total assessed workers will have been certified annually.
Ten percent annual increase in enrolment/graduates in TVET programs.
Two percent annual increase in the numbers of scholarships
Major Programs and Projects
School-Based Technical-Vocational Education Program - formal technical-vocational courses from 1-3 year programs offered by schools.
Center-based technical-vocational education program - provide skills to youth and clients to gain competencies needed by the industry or for self-employment offered by the regional/provincial training centers.
Community based training program - skills development program implemented in partnership with local government units and other private organizations suited to the needs of the locality.
Competency Assessment and Certification program - testing and certification system for skilled workers and graduates.
Private Education Student Fund Assistance (PESFA) scholarship program - sustained support program that caters to the financial need of TVET beneficiaries. It is designed not only for the qualified poor but for deserving students who are willing to pursue non-degree TVET courses.
Kasanayan at Hanapbuhay Program - a training and employment program that provides new entrants to the labor force the opportunity to acquire basic skills and work experience.
Registration of Programs/Courses under the UTPRAS - compliance with minimum standards provided for in training regulations and anchored on competency-based system.
Technical Assistance and Capability Building for TVET Partners - Strengthening of TVET partners through capacity building programs.
Village Technology Project/Dangal ng Barangay Products - LGUs take the lead in identifying, developing and promoting specific products or services that have competitive advantage and supported by other government agencies.